Friday, May 2, 2014

Martians attack 1938 - ORSON WELLS

On the evening of Halloween (October 31st) of the year 1938 in the United States transmitting a radio program that Spanish music was interrupted by a news bulletin in which it was reported unusual sightings explosions on Mars . After the musical program continued . Later again interruption to broadcast live reportage from Grover 's Mill , a small town in New Jersey , where a " giant cylinder " hit the Earth " with a terrible force ." It seems that at that time , about one million Americans listened to the show. Curiosity was gradually replaced by fear when the reporter , and he freaked out , started to describe how to unscrew the outer end of the cylinder ( the speakers screech heard some truly sinister ) and inside the " machine" creatures appear huge, shimmering , huge tentacles and eyes like a snake .
As you continue the " story spot " spreading panic. Scary, reporters recounted how the " vanguard of the invaders from Mars " began to conquer New Jersey, to kill anyone who tried to oppose it and move to the heart of New York . The show is heard more often by the public authorities calls for the evacuation of entire areas.
In his studies on impacts of this radio psychologist Hadley Cantril, U.S. noted that hundreds of thousands of people panicked and many of them have fled their homes to escape the invasion of the " Martians " .
What actually happened ? Every year on Halloween night , Americans disguised in ghosts , monsters , vampires, and other scary figures . The celebration usually comes from an ancient Celtic , aimed to placate the spirits of the dead. The tradition has spread to the United States , Canada, and the British territories , becoming a carnival and fun occasion . Children go caroling , disguised as ghosts, and "threatens " hosts that will make unpleasant surprises if something will appease sweets and adults compete in tricks . On the night of October 31, 1938 , Orson Wells , who was to become one of the most famous American directors and actors , she decided to adapt famous science fiction radio War of the Worlds , written by HG Wells. Together with his colleagues at the Mercury Theater actors have played extremely realistic dramatic moments of the " invasion " of America by hideous " Martian creatures ." The special effects were also improvised with great skill, managing voltage amplification and engendering a sense of panic. For example , to play the famous sound unscrewing the cylinder , technicians found a jar with a lid , which they opened in the toilet tank to give a special resonance background sounds .
How have so many Americans fallen prey to that hoax ? Firstly it must be remembered that the song was transmitted in 1938 , so before " was the TV" . Back then, radio was the only source of music, entertainment , theater , and breaking news . Then copy very accurately track the transmission of live news and reports , in addition , many of the listeners lost early when the show was clearly presented as a radio adaptation of the novel War of the Worlds . Orson Wells chose the show start time just before the end of a very popular radio show Charlie McCarthy, which took place on another station. Most listeners have waited until the end of that show and afterward, they switched to Spanish music station frequency , losing the presentation of the debut issue .
Beyond these explanations , there is also another view of the structure of the human psyche , social psychology . Hearing those " reports " frightening , and almost incredible , many of the listeners were looking to see how it behaves with the Audi show. How did all worried and scared, doubt vanish? We kissed each other because we expected to die at any moment , he remembered a listener , quoted by Cantril .
Many people are convinced that everything they hear on the radio is really happening even found matching the immediate reality , playing instinctively , " in its own key " observations to fit with what is conveyed in speakers. We looked out the window and Wyoming Avenue was black cars. I realized that people were trying to flee , to escape ... said a listener , for another to add: On my street there was no sign a car. I thought the roads were jammed with traffic because many access roads had been destroyed by invaders. ( Cantril )
The phenomenon that has produced such a mass psychosis was called Contagion ) by parallelism with the medical term that means the spread of an epidemic. In social psychology , the contagion is fast forwarding to the crowds of people, emotions, and behavioral manifestations . Whenever an individual is in an ambiguous situation , he tries to adapt to others' reactions . Unfortunately, in such a confusing situation , others do not know any more than he . Because of contagion, mass psychosis becomes sometimes incredible proportions .
Meanwhile, the effects of radio broadcast War of the Worlds shows how strong but sometimes dangerous and can become sources of information when they are handled in a specific purpose. That night of 1938 , very few were people who believed what they heard on the radio and tried to find out details from other radio stations . But nowhere found any news on that "event" . They called various knowledge, but these had no information, the only source for " invasion" is , for all station that transmitted " spot reports " . Lack of additional data , " silence " other stations increased confusion . Which demonstrates the existence of a single source of information can increase the maximum effects of manipulation. Orson Wells broadcast his case is just one particular , especially as happened in the existence of a large number of radio stations . Lack of additional information generated confusion and facilitated the spread of psychosis .

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